Sahagún was a gifted linguist, one of several Franciscans. His field research activities can be grouped into an earlier period (1558–1561) and a later period (1561–1575). Show Prices . Sahagún Bernardino de 1505?-1590. Entering the order he followed the Franciscan custom of changing his family name for the name of his birth town, becoming Bernardino de Sahagún. [13] The college contributed to the blending of Spanish and indigenous cultures in what is now Mexico. Always and to all persons he was gentle, humble, and courteous. His religious companions affirmed that he went into frequent ecstasies. [A]s regards the Catholic Faith, [Mexico] is a sterile land and very laborious to cultivate, where the Catholic Faith has very shallow roots, and with much labor little fruit is produced, and from little cause that which is planted and cultivated withers. João Gonzalez estudou teologia na Universidade de Salamanca. Such an herbal, the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, was written in Latin by Juan Badianus de la Cruz, an Aztec teacher at the college, perhaps with help from students or other teachers. During the Age of Discovery, 1450–1700, Iberian rulers took a great interest in the missionary evangelization of indigenous peoples encountered in newly discovered lands. The Library of Congress provides online access to the Florentine Codex, a 1577 manuscript written by indigenous informants under the supervision of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590).The manuscript is held in the Medicea Laurenziana Library in Florence. Some colonial authorities perceived his writings as potentially dangerous, since they lent credibility to native voices and perspectives. A. Sahagún and His Works" by Luis Nicolau D'Olwer and Howard F. Cline. El Ruedo II Hostal. Best Hostels in Sahagun, Spain: See traveler reviews, candid photos and great deals on hostels in Sahagun on Tripadvisor. People from both the Spanish and indigenous cultures held a wide range of opinions and views about what was happening in this transformation. Arthur J.O. His last years were difficult, because the utopian idealism of the first Franciscans in New Spain was fading while the Spanish colonial project continued as brutal and exploitative. Bar/Lounge. Bernardino de Sahagún. The philosophy of Scotus is founded upon the primacy of the Incarnation, and may have been a particularly important influence on Sahagún, since Scotus's philosophy was taught in Spain at this time. The work thus undertaken occupied some seven years, in collaboration with the best native authorities, and was expanded into a history and description of the Aztec people and civilization in twelve manuscript books, together with a grammar (Arte) and dictionary of the language. During this period, the university at Salamanca was strongly influenced by Erasmus, and was a center for Spanish Franciscan intellectual life. Sahagún questioned the elders about the religious rituals and calendar, family, economic and political customs, and natural history. Show Prices. Some of the latter competitors hinted that the Friars were endorsing idolatry. Nicholson, "Fray Bernardino De Sahagún: A Spanish Missionary in New Spain, 1529-1590. Sahagún explains that a church of Santa Ana has become a pilgrimage site for Toci (Nahuatl: "our grandmother"). Franciscan prayer includes the conscious remembering of the human life of Jesus[32] and the practice of care for the poor and marginalized. 1982, Guadalajara, Mexico) is a multi-disciplinary that confronts the palpable inescapability of race and transforms art into an act of cultural reclamation. Cline, "Revisionist Conquest History: Sahagún's Book XII," in. Renfe Viajeros operates a train from Santiago De Compostela to Sahagun once daily. Lodge. He interviewed them individually and in groups, and was thus able to evaluate the reliability of the information shared with him. Anderson, "Introduction" to the, Ellen T. Baird, "Artists of Sahagun's Primeros Memoriales: A Question of Identity," in, For a history of this scholarly work, see Charles E. Dibble, "Sahagún's. A religious philosophical anthropology — a vision of humanity — may shape a missionary's vision of human beings, and in turn the missionary's behavior on a cultural frontier. Sahagun, Bernardino 1499-1590. Even as he expressed disgust at their continuing practice of human sacrifice and their idolatries, he spent five decades investigating Aztec culture. So on another day the lord and his principal men came and having conferred together, with great solemnity, as they were accustomed at that time to do, they chose out ten or twelve of the principal old men, and told me that with these I might communicate and that these would instruct me in any matters I should inquire of. Historia general de las cosas de nueva España (General history of the things of New Spain) is an encyclopedic work about the people and culture of central Mexico compiled by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (1499–1590), a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico in 1529, eight years after completion of the Spanish conquest by Hernan Cortés. "The scope of the Historia’s coverage of contact-period Central Mexico indigenous culture is remarkable, unmatched by any other sixteenth-century works that attempted to describe the native way of life.”[30] Foremost in his own mind, Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary, but he may also rightfully be given the title of father of American Ethnography. #3 Best Value of 13 places to stay in Sahagun. During his first years in New Spain, Sahagún prepared for the creation of t… The friars had disagreements over how best to approach this problem, as well as disagreements about their mission, and how to determine success. With these appointed principal men, including the four instructed in grammar, I talked many days during about two years, following the order of the minute I had already made out. Bernardino de Sahagún y su obra [por Wigberto Jiménez Moreno] Libros I-IV.--II. [29], The Historia general is the product one of the most remarkable social-science research projects ever conducted. Rooms at Hostal La Bastide du Chemin feature rustic décor and come with flat-screen TV and a private bathroom with free toiletries. He became convinced that only by mastering native languages and worldviews could missionaries be effective in dealing with the Aztec people. The version in the Historia General is the only narration of historical events, as opposed to information on general topics such as religious beliefs and practices and social structure. He began his study of Nahuatl while traveling across the Atlantic, learning from indigenous nobles who were returning to the New World from Spain. "The Research Method of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Questionnaires," in, S.L. Free Wifi . SAHAGÚN, BERNARDINO DE Franciscan historian, linguist, and ethnologist, considered the precursor of modern cultural anthropology and father of American ethnology; b. Ewert Cousins, "Francis of Assisi and Bonaventure: Mysticism and Theological Interpretation," in, Alfredo Lopez-Austin. Later he was recognized as one of the Spaniards most proficient in this language. Spanish conquistadores led by Hernán Cortez conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (on the site of present-day Mexico City) in 1521, and Franciscan missionaries followed shortly thereafter in 1524. Sahagún, Bernardino de (c. 1499/1500–1590)Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan missionary, arrived in New Spain in 1529 and began a prolific career of evangelization of the Nahua peoples to Christianity. Tickets cost 27€ - 35€ and the journey takes 5h 9m. Sahagún Bernardino de. [33], Several specific dimensions of Sahagún's work (and that of other Franciscans in New Spain) reflect this philosophical anthropology. It became a vehicle for evangelization of students, as well as the recruiting and training of native men to the Catholic clergy; it was a center for the study of native languages, especially Nahuatl. Having received this commandment, I made in the Spanish language a minute or memorandum of all the matters that I had to treat of, which matters are what is written in the twelve books … which were begun in the pueblo of Tepeopulco…. #2 Best Value of 13 places to stay in Sahagun. Nicholson, "Fray Bernardino De Sahagún: A Spanish Missionary in New Spain, 1529-1590." [39] He revised the account in 1585 in important ways, adding passages praising the Spanish, especially the conqueror Hernan Cortés, rather than adhering to the indigenous viewpoint. Father Sahagún thus describes the inception of the work: “I was commanded in all holy obedience by my chief prelate to write in the Mexican language that which appeared to me to be useful for the doctrine, worship, and maintenance of Christianity among these natives of New Spain, and for the aid of the ministers and workers that taught them. [14] He conducted research for about twenty-five years, and spent the last fifteen or so editing, translating and copying. In particular, he outlined a philosophical anthropology that reflects a Franciscan spirit. In 1793 a bibliographer catalogued the Florentine Codex in the Laurentian Library in Florence. Étudiant à l'université de Salamanque, il entra en religion au couvent des Franciscains réformés et partit comme missionnaire The respectful study of the local traditions has probably been seen as a possible obstacle to the christian mission. It was published in 1583 by Pedro Ocharte, but circulated in New Spain prior to that in order to replace with Christian texts the songs and poetry of the Nahuas. After a translation mistake, it was given the name Historia general de las Cosas de Nueva España. The herbal and the map show the influence of both the Spanish and the Aztec cultures, and by their structure and style convey the blending of these cultures. He also became concerned about the tendency of his fellow Franciscan missionaries to misunderstand basic elements of traditional Aztec religious beliefs and cosmology. Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529, and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. His assistants spoke three languages (Nahuatl, Latin and Spanish). In the meantime a preliminary manuscript draft had been carried to Spain, where it became known to Ovando, president of the Council of the Indies, on whose request the Franciscan delegate-general directed Father Sahagún to make a complete Spanish translation, furnishing all necessary assistance. It is not unique as a chronicle of encounters with the new world and its people, but it stands out due to Sahagún's effort to gather information about a foreign culture by querying people and perspectives from within that culture. It was published under the title “Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España”, in three volumes at Mexico in 1829, and in volumes five and seven of Kingsborough’s “Mexican Antiquities”, London, 1831. He translated the Psalms, the Gospels, and a catechism into Nahuatl. Inspired by their Franciscan spirituality and Catholic humanism, the friars organized the indigenous peoples into utopian communities. Cline, "Introduction" Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Hernán Cortez conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, Colegio Imperial de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, Complete digital facsimile of the first edition, "The work of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernardino_de_Sahagún&oldid=996309918, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Nicholson, H.B., "Fray Bernardino De Sahagún: A Spanish Missionary in New Spain, 1529-1590," in, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 20:18. In the process of putting together the Historia general, Sahagún pioneered new methods for gathering ethnographic information and validating its accuracy. He was most exact in the duties of his order, never missing Matins, even in his old age. They believed that New Spain was the opportunity to revive the pure spirit of primitive Christianity. Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico). Two notable products of the scholarship at the college are the first New World "herbal," and a map of what is now the Mexico City region. Fray Bernardino was born Bernardino de Rivera (Ribera, Ribeira) 1499 in Sahagún, Spain. [22] His curiosity drew him to learn more about the worldview of the Aztecs, and his linguistic skills enabled him to do so. In addition to his unequalled mastery of the Mexican language, it was said of him that he excelled in all the sciences. He attended the University of Salamanca, where he was exposed to the currents of Renaissance humanism. Some passages in his writings appear to be transcriptions of informants' statements about religious beliefs, society or nature. [24] He conducted his research at Tepeapulco, approximately 50 miles northeast of Mexico City, near present-day Hidalgo. The priest had a free hand to conduct his investigations. Free Wifi. In 1547, he collected and recorded huehuetlatolli, Aztec formal orations given by elders for moral instruction, education of youth, and cultural construction of meaning. He interviewed and consulted more elders and cultural authorities. [16] An "herbal" is a catalog of plants and their uses, including descriptions and their medicinal applications. Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590. "Having discussed the springs, waters, and mountains, this seemed to me to be the opportune place to discuss the principal idolatries which were practiced and are still practiced in the waters and mountains."[36]. Hostal Domus Viatoris. [27][28] The work is now carefully rebound in three volumes. Sahagún was one of several friars at the school who wrote notable accounts of indigenous life and culture. [1]Vida. Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529.He learned Nahuatl and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. This served as the basis for his subsequent, larger Historia General. Glass in the Boston Public Library, and has been published in facsimile and English translation, with comparisons to Book 12 of the General History. [15] Despite this ban Sahagún made two more copies of his Historia general. Charles E. Dibble (1909-2002) was an anthropologist, linguist, and scholar specializing in Mesoamerican cultures. Saint Francis’ intuitive approach was elaborated into a philosophical vision by subsequent Franciscan theologians, such as Bonaventure of Bagnoregio and John Duns Scotus, leading figures in the Franciscan intellectual tradition. Thus, Sahagún had the motivation, skills and disposition to study the people and their culture. Friars thought the images were decorative, but the Natives recognized their strong religious connotation. The room I stayed in was spacious, comfy, and clean. The friars had to be careful in pursuing and defining their interactions with indigenous people. He compared the answers obtained from his various sources. But in this same section, Sahagún expressed his profound doubt that the Christian evangelization of the Indians would last in New Spain, particularly since the devastating plague of 1576 decimated the indigenous population and tested the survivors. Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529. [3] The most famous extant manuscript of the Historia General is the Florentine Codex. Various delays enabled the author to continue revisions and additions for several years. Sahagún, Bernardino de 1499-1590 O.F.M. Flights ... Hotel Puerta de Sahagun. And thus, also in this place, idolatry appears to be cloaked because so many people come from such distant lands without Saint Ann's ever having performed any miracles there. [17] In this document, the plants are drawn, named and presented according to the Aztec system of organization. The #1 Best Value of 13 places to stay in Sahagun. It was there that he joined the Order of Friars Minor or Franciscans. Grupo Palacio de Hierro, S.A.B. He learned Nahuatl and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. De una copia de la Historia de Sahagún, que se encontraba en el convento de San Francisco de Tolosa, España, proceden las ediciones que hicieron Carlos María de Bustamante (3 vols., 1825-1839), Irineo Paz (4 vols., 1890-1895) y Joaquín Ramírez Cabañas (5 vols., 1938). It is a codex consisting of 2,400 pages organized into twelve books, with approximately 2,500 illustrations drawn by native artists using both native and European techniques. 149 reviews #2 of 2 hotels in Sahagun. He was assigned to the college of Santa Cruz in Tlaltelolco, near the City of Mexico, and took up the work of preaching, conversion, and the instruction of the native youth in Spanish and Latin, science, music, and religion, while by close study and years of daily practice he himself acquired such mastery of the Aztec language as has never since been attained by any other student. In its initial stages, the colonial evangelization project appeared quite successful, despite the sometimes antagonizing behavior of the conquistadores. Franciscans newly arrived in the colony did not share the earlier Franciscans' faith and zeal about the capacity of the Indians. 549 reviews. Sahagún was among the first to develop methods and strategies for gathering and validating knowledge of indigenous New World cultures. There he spent two years interviewing approximately a dozen village elders in Nahuatl, assisted by native graduates of the college at Tlatelolco. And it is something that should be remedied, for the correct [native] name of the Mother of God, Holy Mary, is not Tonantzin, but Dios inantzin. [40] The original of the 1585 manuscript is lost. Sahagún likely wrote this version with that political situation well in mind, when a narrative of the conquest entirely from the defeated Mexicans' viewpoint was suspect. In Sahagún's collaborative approach, in which he consistently gave credit to his collaborators, especially Antonio Valeriano, the Franciscan value of community is expressed.[34]. In 2015, his work was declared a World Heritage by the UNESCO.[5]. These were not encyclopedias in the contemporary sense, and can be better described as worldbooks, for they attempt to provide a relatively complete presentation of knowledge about the world.[26]. He expanded the scope of his earlier research, and further developed his interviewing methods. He edited his prior work. The provincial wanted Sahagún to formalize his study of native language and culture, so that he could share it with others. Bernardino de Sahagún (Spanish: [beɾnaɾˈðino ðe saaˈɣun]; c. 1499 – 5 February 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico). Sahagún's life changed dramatically in 1558 when the new provincial of New Spain, Fray Francisco de Toral, commissioned him to write in Nahuatl about topics he considered useful for the missionary project. Primeros Memoriales, by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, is a valuable document providing great understanding and knowledge of provincial Mesoamerican civilization. Sahagún taught Latin and other subjects during its initial years. [14] He began informal studies of indigenous peoples, their beliefs, and religious practices. Arthur J.O. A viceroy (like a governor) ruled New Spain on behalf of the King of Spain. Sahagún, Bernardino da 1499-1590. [31] The pro-indigenous approach of the Franciscan missionaries in New Spain is consistent with the philosophy of Franciscan John Duns Scotus. Libros V-IX.--III Libros X-XI. I. Fr. 368 a 965) del libro XI. In this section, Sahagún denounces the association of the Virgin of Guadalupe with a pagan Meso-American deity. What companies run services between Santiago de Compostela, Spain and Sahagún, Castille and León, Spain? On all the subjects on which we conferred they gave me pictures—which were the writings anciently in use among them—and these the grammarians interpreted to me in their language, writing the interpretation at the foot of the picture.”. In over sixty years as college professor he rested not for a day “teaching civilization and good customs, reading, writing, grammar, music, and other things in the service of God and the state”. This later served as a base for his own research activities, as he recruited former students to work with him. Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590.He studied at the convent of Salamanca where he took the vows of the order, and in 1529 was sent out to Mexico, being one of the earliest missionaries assigned to that country, where he labored until his death more than sixty years later. From the Catholic Encyclopedia. Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529, and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. It offers a shared terrace and free WiFi. [25] Analysis of Sahagún's research activities in this earlier period indicates that he was developing and evaluating his own methods for gathering and verifying this information. 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