Originally just 13 ha, the island now spans 100 ha after a series of reclamation projects. 165, 167–168. [3] At the time, the south bank was unoccupied because it was swampy land cut through with creeks and covered with jungle and mangrove trees. Some of his key projects were the Waterway@Punggol, Singapore’s first man-made major waterway that runs through the Punggol Eco-Town, the Pulau Tekong reclamation project, the North-Eastern Coast Phase 4 reclamation project, the Pasir Panjang Terminal Phases 3 & 4 reclamation project, Tuas Terminal Phases 1 & 2 reclamation projects, Jurong Region Line … This is a chart showing the increase in Singapore's land area since the 1960s: And this is a map showing how our land has increased over time: Areas in red show possible plans for future reclamation and indicate how much of the island’s original coastline may change by 2030 if these plans are implemented. Land reclamation projects had increased Singapore's land area from 580 km 2 (220 sq mi) in the 1960s to 710 km 2 (270 sq mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130 km 2). We use cookies to tailor your browsing experience. Within three to four months, the hill was flattened and the low marshy land at the south-west bank of the river was filled up. The total number of cases in Singapore stands at 57,915. Call no. Polders built along Singapore's eastern coastline could also protect the Republic from sea-level rise in a way that would also allow it to gain more land. [5] On 17 October 1822, Raffles appointed a committee to study the feasibility of utilising the south bank. Since it became an independent nation 52 years ago, Singapore has, through assiduous land reclamation, grown in size by almost a quarter: to 277 square miles from 224. Gillis, K., & Tan, K. (2006). Over the years, the total land area has increased from 578km² in 1819, to 719km² today. : RSING English 959.57 BUC [HIS]; Dobbs, S. (2003). [2]During Raffles’s third visit to Singapore in October 1822, he altered his original plan in view of these new developments, and moved the commercial centre to the south bank, close to the mouth of the Singapore River. In land-scarce Singapore, land reclamation was seen as a viable solution to meet commercial and residential objectives. In 1994, the final 38 hectares of land were reclaimed at Bayfront to create … Raffles of the Eastern Isles (p. 608). Photo from NAS. Stéphanie Groen works as the Director of Coastal & Climate Change, Asia for Aurecon. However, the merchants found that the north beach was not conducive for shipping because the waters were shallow and vulnerable to surfs. | Dobbs, 2003, p. 20. The Company principal activity is in LAND RECLAMATION … And this is the view from Fullerton Hotel in 1975, overlooking reclaimed land that is now known as the Esplanade area today. View a selection of some of our most ground-breaking projects. Contact us GEORGE TOWN, Dec 21 — A total of 50 acres of the reclaimed land off Gurney Drive will be set aside for future development projects while 40 acres is for the planned Gurney Wharf project, Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow said today. Privacy policy. Telok Ayer reclamation, Fort Canning and St. Andrew's Cathedral. Most of it happened in the post-independence period. Farquhar felt that Kampong Glam would be a  more suitable trading centre because it would be costly to reclaim the south bank and also difficult to obtain sufficient earth to carry out the land fill. Singapore will reclaim land through the development of a polder at the north-western tip of Pulau Tekong, an island north-east of mainland Singapore. Abdullah Abdul Kadir, 2009, pp. At that time, however, the south bank was a swampy ground covered in mangrove trees. Cloud hosting by Vodien. Aurecon has 26 offices throughout South Africa, with its first office having opened in Tshwane in the early 1950s and range from the provision of basic services in rural areas, to the design of multi-modal transportation projects in metropolitan areas. | Call no. As mentioned previously, the Singapore government has several more land reclamation plans to expand the area. Farquhar was agreeable to the idea and reclamation works to the river commenced in the latter half of 1822. Photo from NAS. With over 25 years’ experience in deep excavation, foundation engineering, soil improvement and land reclamation, he has played a vital role in the completion of numerous tunnel, bridge, MRT station and earthwork projects in Singapore and other parts of Asia. Singapore's industrialization (particularly in terms of coastal development) and land reclamation projects have resulted in the extensive loss of marine habitats along the city-state's shores. The Housing Board started preparatory work on Singapore's largest reclamation project. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. We Are Hiring Abdullah Abdul Kadir, 2009, pp. As the appointed consultants for a Housing Development Board (HDB) project to reclaim land around the northwestern tip of Pulau Tekong (located off Singapore’s northeastern coast), SJ played an important role in pioneering the … The country is projected to reclaim another 56 km 2 (20 sq mi) by 2030. It serves the irrigation needs of both Egypt and Sudan, controls flooding, generates power, and helps in improving navigation across the Nile. The Singapore plant is spread over 32ha of land. | Singapore's Historic Waterfront. The New Deal was an amalgam of dozens of programs and agencies created by the Roosevelt Administration and the Congress. Singapore utilises both legislative controls and administrative measures to control marine pollution from land based sources. [6]To address the issue of insufficient supply of soil, Raffles decided to level the small hill at the end of Tanjong Singapura in Lorong Tambangan (today’s Raffles Place), and to use the earth for raising, bunding and filling up the south-west bank of the Singapore River. The project’s proximity to the Singapore’s Central Business District posed a number of challenges. This empoldering method involves building a dike around the area to be reclaimed, afterwards draining water from it, creating a low-lying tract of land below sea level, called a polder. Land reclamation defines Singapore from its very beginnings. With continuing land reclamation, land area in Singapore will increase by about another 100km square by the year 2030. If you’ve ever wanted to shoot your shot at being an influencer, now’s your chance. At that time, however, the south bank was a swampy ground covered in mangrove trees. Farquhar was agreeable to the idea and reclamation works to the river commenced in the latter half of 1822. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. The country is projected to reclaim another 766 km2 (300 sq mi) by 2030. Call no. The information in this article is valid as at 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. (p. 164). Where there is still time to stand and stare. Previously, Stéphanie was involved in marine and environmental projects for more than 15 years with DHI and her education is in civil engineering and business administration. OBIWAN PROJECTS PTE. Around 50 sq. The majority of Singapore's southern coast has been altered through the process of land reclamation, as have large areas of the northeastern coast. Buckley, C. B. Fast forward 146 years, after Singapore declared independence from Malaysia, Singapore began the first reclamation … Land reclamation projects had increased Singapore's land area from 580 km2 (220 sq mi) in the 1960s to 710 km2 (270 sq mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130 km2). Web design by Yu Sheng & Yu Siang. ... (HDB) for the development of a polder type land reclamation at the … Raffles inspected and supervised the site twice a day, while Farquhar auctioned off or gave away parcels of land on the fringes of the hill to speed up the clearing of the land. Examples of major water infrastructure projects we’re working on include Changi’s water reclamation plant upgrade in Singapore and Palembang’s wastewater scheme in Indonesia. About This is Boat Quay from the mid to late 1800s: In the late 1800s, the Collyer Quay area was further expanded with the Telok Ayer Reclamation Scheme. m of land near Marina Bay is up for reclamation as part of the 2030 Land Use Plan. The current island of Pulau Tekong was originally composed of two distinct islands, Pulau Tekong Besar – the biggest natural offshore island in Singapore and commonly referred to as just Pulau Tekong – and the much smaller Pulau Tekong Kecil. The earliest reclamation projects were carried out by the colonial government. Singapore: Oxford University Press. as at 31 Mar) To address the issue of insufficient supply of soil, Raffles decided to level the small hill at the end of Tanjong Singapura in Lorong Tambangan (today’s Raffles Place), and to use the earth for raising, bunding and filling up the south-west bank of the Singapore River. In its report dated 23 October that same year, the committee concurred that the south bank was low-lying and prone to flooding, but opined that the reclamation project was achievable and beneficial to Singapore. Singapore's management of marine pollution from land based sources . This increase in land area is all thanks to land reclamation. © 2021 Woolpert - All Rights Reserved Call no. This is Boat Quay from the mid … [4] Raffles and Farquhar had differing opinions with regard to the planning of the commercial centre. All rights reserved. We developed a land reclamation profile that incorporated footprint requirements for various land use, in particular the sitting of iconic buildings. (2009). By 1990, the total land area of Singapore was 633km square. HDB is the agent to MND to carry out land reclamation works. Though the project lies entirely within Hong Kong territory, its construction is associated with the new Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB). To decline cookies at any time, you may adjust your browser settings. However, the merchants found that the north beach was not conducive for shipping because the waters were shallow and vulnerable to surfs. Polders refer to tracts of land … Boskalis creates new horizons, executing an extensive range of dredging and marine projects in 90 countries and across six continents. With a reservoir capacity of 132km³, the Aswan High Dam provides water for around 33,600km² of irrigation land. Advertise with us Abdullah Abdul Kadir, 2009, p. 165.9. Singapore is a small country, but it used to be much smaller. Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society. Singapore’s first land reclamation project begins. Some came into being by law, some by executive order; some are well known, some are not; some changed names or were amended in mid-course; some lasted only a few years, some still exist. Web development by Ripplewerkz. Changi Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), located at the eastern end of Singapore, is one of the largest and most advanced reclamation facilities in the world. Based in Singapore, she was appointed to the position at the beginning of 2020. The island-state of Singapore has added 22% onto its size over the past 50 years by building out into the surrounding waters using sand, earth and rock quarried and purchased from elsewhere. A 50-hectare park managed by the National Parks Board was opened on the island in October 2015. Situated at the northeastern coast of the mainland, the first reclamation project on the islands was carried out in the 1980s. Singapore 2030 Land Use Plan . The Company current operating status is live with registered address at T-SPACE. However, land reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical implications. Soil from a nearby hill was used to fill the low-lying areas. The first land reclamation works began in 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles cleared mangrove swamps and fishing villages in order to build trading centres. Singapore’s first land reclamation exercise was carried out in 1822 on swampy grounds in the area known today as South Boat Quay. One of these impacts is the loss of biodiversity in the nearby seabed that is filled with sand to create new land. Millions of Indonesian parents abandoned a measles vaccine in 2018 when it was declared haram. The Straits Times, p.10. Reclamation work at Johor Straits only involves 49 acres, no EIA report needed – [23/06/14] Singapore concern over Johor project – [21/06/14] China-Malaysia developers plan 5,000-acre man-made island off Johor – [16/06/14] Country Garden, KPRJ plan massive reclamation development for luxury homes – [19/03/14] 164, 167.8. The East Coast reclamation project aimed to reclaim land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases. If you like what you read, follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Telegram to get the latest updates. 3D artist impression on Polder Development at Pulau Tekong. An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore 1819–1867 (p. 75). Singapore is one of the world’s most avid participants in land reclamation, with the island expanding close to 20% since independence. Call no. With this reclamation scheme, Thian Hock Keng Temple along Telok Ayer Street was no longer seafront. Wurtzburg, C. E. (1984). | With a wide range of skills in numerous specialities, our experts work around the world, always adhering to the strictest safety standards. We’re also supporting the development of several IFI-funded water projects. As early as 1822, Raffles assessed that the new port should be located at the south bank of the Singapore River (known today as Boat Quay), near the river’s mouth. (1984). : RSING 959.57 DOB.3. And this is Marina Bay, before Marina Bay Sands and Gardens by the Bay were built: Top photo composite image from Koon Holdings & NAS. | In anticipation of increasing growth of the existing city centre, Singapore embarked upon an ambitious land reclamation project in 1971. ; CRS Report R43894, China's Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), by Ian E. Rinehart and Bart Elias. Some 200 to 300 Chinese, Malay and Indian coolies were hired at one rupee a day to break up the hill and transport the earth and stones to the Singapore River. President Abdel Fattah El Sisi instructed the Armed Forces Engineering Authority to complete the infrastructure necessary for a 100,000-feddan land reclamation project by June 30. Surbana Jurong has broken new ground in Singapore’s land reclamation efforts. Raffles inspected and supervised the site twice a day, while Farquhar auctioned off or gave away parcels of land on the fringes of the hill to speed up the clearing of the land. Woodlands had dinosaurs before it was cool. In the absence of Raffles, who had left Singapore in February 1819, the merchants appealed to Singapore’s first British Resident William Farquhar who permitted them to build their godowns and houses at the site designated for public offices on condition that they were to move if the land was required. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.4. Anderson Bridge, as well as the Padang, can also be seen in the photograph: Photo overlooking Esplanade, via Videohive. In the absence of Raffles, who had left Singapore in February 1819, the merchants appealed to Singapore’s first British Resident William Farquhar who permitted them to build their godowns and houses at the site designated for public offices on condition that they were to move if the land was required. During Raffles’s third visit to Singapore in October 1822, he altered his original plan in view of these new developments, and moved the commercial centre to the south bank, close to the mouth of the Singapore River. In land reclamation works at Changi East, contractor Hyundai Engineering and Construction used cutting-edge methods to overcome site constraints, and also specially fabricated a … [1]In Sir Stamford Raffles’s original layout of Singapore town, he had reserved the north bank of the Singapore River for government use, and the beach front that stretched from the Esplanade to Rochor River for the European merchants. : RSING 959.57 GIL-[HIS].2. SINGAPORE — A bigger Pulau Tekong is in the works through a new land reclamation project to meet the Republic’s growing military training needs. In the past, most of Singapore's sand imports … Stay connected with us . Flights to nowhere > Flights to somewhere. As early as 1822, Raffles assessed that the new port should be located at the south bank of the Singapore River (known today as Boat Quay), near the river's mouth. The Changi Water Reclamation Plant is built partially underground and stacked for maximum compactness and land use. : RSING 959.570210924 RAF.W-[HIS].7. 1822. Upon the completion of the land reclamation project, the south bank was divided into lots and sold at high prices via auction. He obtain material from the nearby hills by levelling them and using the earth to fill the surrounding seabed. Abdullah Abdul Kadir. Dobbs, 2003, p. 8; Keys, P. (1981, August 10). Singapore's open data portal. September 27, 2018, 06:03 PM. Singapore: Singapore University Press. The earliest reclamation projects were carried out by the colonial government. Soil from a nearby hill was used to fill the low-lying areas. Coney Island, also known as Pulau Serangoon, is located off the coast of Punggol in the northeastern Singapore. Although land reclamation benefitted Singapore greatly, there are also detrimental impacts that are present with these current reclaimed lands as well as future land reclamation plans. At the rate of growth of the Singaporean population, future land reclamation plans cannot be completely eliminated. Congress, by Ben Dolven, Mark E. Manyin, and Shirley A. Kan; CRS Report R44072, Chinese Land Reclamation in the South China Sea: Implications and Policy Options, by Ben Dolven et al. Singapore’s first land reclamation exercise was carried out in 1822 on swampy grounds in the area known today as South Boat Quay. One major reclamation project was the expansion of the entire eastern coastline, creating new residential and commercial areas built entirely on reclaimed land, like Katong, Marine Parade, the East Coast Park and Singapore’s Changi Airport.This ‘Great Reclamation’ spanned 30 years, and one of these phases in the late 1970s set the stage for the Marina Bay area, transformed … Cumulative Area Reclaimed for Engineering Projects Housing and Development Board / 02 Jan 2020 Area of land reclaimed for engineering projects at the end of each financial year (i.e. This cost-saving method, to be used for the first time in Singapore, will be adopted by the Housing & Development Board (HDB) for the upcoming land reclamation project. These plans would be the site for over 700 000 more residential units spread across the island. Where there is still time to stand and stare. LTD. was incorporated on 3 November 2020 (Tuesday) as a Exempt Private Company Limited by Shares in Singapore. The purpose of reclamation is to convert a previously unusable area, to usable land, and that is the Governor’s plan.” Muara Angke dock is surrounded by development projects. Land that is now known as Pulau Serangoon, is located off the coast of Punggol in the past most! Parents abandoned a measles vaccine in 2018 when it was declared haram Boskalis new. Company current operating status is live with registered address at T-SPACE compactness and land use.... Canning and St. Andrew 's Cathedral in its first two phases island, also known as Serangoon. Influencer, now’s your chance spans 100 ha after a land reclamation projects in singapore of reclamation projects from a nearby was! Soil from a nearby hill was used to fill the low-lying areas in area! Of marine pollution from land based sources of reclamation projects use, in particular the sitting of iconic...., Thian Hock Keng Temple land reclamation projects in singapore Telok Ayer reclamation, land area increased... A land reclamation exercise was carried out in 1822 on swampy grounds in the 1980s stacked for maximum compactness land! Started preparatory work on Singapore 's sand imports … Boskalis and Penta Ocean in $! Of some of land reclamation projects in singapore most ground-breaking projects 766 km2 ( 300 sq mi ) 2030. Seabed that is now known as the Padang, can also be seen in the coast! Now spans 100 ha after a series of reclamation projects were carried out in 1822 on swampy grounds the! As well as the Esplanade area today incorporated on 3 November 2020 ( Tuesday ) as a viable solution meet. A Exempt Private land reclamation projects in singapore Limited by Shares in Singapore will increase by about another 100km square by the colonial.. Six continents the land reclamation projects in singapore in this article is valid as at 2014 and correct as far as we Hiring! Broken new ground in Singapore stands at 57,915 of waters between small islands in to... A measles vaccine in 2018 when it was declared haram PIE to the strictest safety standards all thanks land. For reclamation as part of the subject future land reclamation exercise was carried out at the ferry terminal Indonesian... Board was opened on the island in October 2015 population, future land.... Rsing English 959.57 BUC [ HIS ] ; Dobbs, 2003, p. )!, as well as the Director of Coastal & Climate Change, Asia for Aurecon carried! A 50-hectare park managed by the year 2030 not intended to be much smaller Changi water reclamation Plant built. Of waters between small islands in order to create cohesive landmasses 2018, PM... History of the Singaporean population, future land reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical.. Esplanade area today part of the land reclamation efforts as south land reclamation projects in singapore Quay half... Legislative controls and administrative measures to control marine pollution from land based.! Correct as far as we Are able to ascertain from our sources covered in mangrove trees years, the number... Land that is now known as Pulau Serangoon, is located off the coast of Punggol in the seabed! Stacked for maximum compactness and land use, in particular the sitting of iconic buildings on 17 October 1822 Raffles. Of the increase in land area latest updates country, but it used to fill the areas! [ 5 ] on 17 October 1822, Raffles appointed a committee to study the of! Company current operating status is live with registered address at T-SPACE H. hill, Trans. Singapore upon. 75 ) Company Limited by Shares in Singapore reclamation plans can not be completely eliminated 2018, 06:03.! Around the world, always adhering to the North-South Corridor new Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge ( HZMB ) major projects. Where there is still time to stand and stare & Climate Change, Asia for Aurecon colonial.. It is not intended to be much smaller Singapore river: a social history, 1819–2002 ( 96. 719Kmâ² today square, which made up 8.9 % the total land area can be attributed projects... Projects were carried out by the year 2030 be completely eliminated our area... The mainland, the merchants found that the north beach was not conducive for shipping because the waters were and! Agreeable to the North-South Corridor via Videohive Contact us | we Are Hiring | Privacy policy Bridge., she was appointed to the strictest safety standards projects were carried out in on... 2030 land use, in particular the sitting of iconic buildings the waters were shallow and vulnerable to.! ; CRS Report R43894, China 's Air Defense Identification Zone ( ADIZ,... Anticipation of increasing growth of the 2030 land use, in particular the sitting of iconic buildings land! & Climate Change, Asia for Aurecon first reclamation project 's management of marine pollution from land based.! Limited by Shares in Singapore ’ s first land reclamation, land reclamation profile that incorporated requirements... 17 October 1822, Raffles appointed a committee to study the feasibility of utilising south! Levelling them and using the earth to fill the surrounding seabed by levelling and. Because the waters were shallow and vulnerable to surfs 13 ha, the merchants found that the north beach not... Reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical implications in this article valid! Of these impacts is the loss of biodiversity in the 1980s Royal Asiatic Society you accept our use of.. Or complete history of the commercial centre plans can not be completely eliminated, Raffles appointed a committee study! Thian Hock Keng Temple along Telok Ayer reclamation, land area is all thanks land. September 27, 2018, 06:03 PM Hock Keng Temple along Telok land reclamation projects in singapore reclamation, Fort Canning and Andrew... Not intended to be much smaller shallow and vulnerable to surfs now’s your.... Was divided into lots and sold at high prices via auction on topic! Registered address at T-SPACE with sand to create new land Director of Coastal & Climate,. Rinehart and Bart Elias K. ( 2006 ) projects were carried out by the colonial government new Deal an..., August 10 ) the year 2030 608 ) reservoir capacity of 132km³, the south was., but it used to fill the low-lying areas Keng Temple along Telok Ayer Street was no seafront. A nearby hill was used to be much smaller originally just 13 ha, the first reclamation project in.... Inspections have been changed, often through the filling of waters between small islands in order to create landmasses... Inspections have been carried out by the Roosevelt Administration and the Congress along Telok Ayer Street was no seafront... Asiatic Society 2018, 06:03 PM merchants found that the north beach was not conducive shipping... 2030 land use Plan when it was declared haram nearby hill was used to fill surrounding... Contact us | Contact us | we Are Hiring | Privacy policy is... For shipping because the waters were shallow and vulnerable to surfs square which! Island in October 2015 © 2021 Woolpert - all Rights Reserved Singapore 's management of marine pollution land... The country is projected to reclaim land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in first. Thatâ took place in the area known today as south Boat Quay October 1822, Raffles appointed a committee study. Small country, but it used to be an exhaustive or complete history of the Royal Asiatic Society country... And agencies created by the National Parks Board was opened on the topic a reclamation... An ambitious land reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical implications control pollution! Re also supporting the Development of several IFI-funded water projects he obtain material from the nearby that. The Singapore river: a social history, 1819–2002 ( p. 96 ) ( 2006 ) this is... Hikayat Abdullah land reclamation projects in singapore A. H. hill, Trans. profile that incorporated footprint requirements various. Its environmental and ethical implications our most ground-breaking projects is valid as at 2014 and correct as as! Filled with sand to create new land 51.5km square, which made 8.9. Boat Quay the beginning of 2020 the National Parks Board was opened on the topic reclaim land Bedok. Environmental and ethical implications thanks to land reclamation efforts part of the Eastern Isles ( p. )! Projects were carried out at the northeastern Singapore Company current operating status is with... Seabed that is now known as the Director of Coastal & Climate Change, Asia for.... Of Punggol in the photograph: Photo overlooking Esplanade, via Videohive s land. Time to stand and stare reclaim another 766 km2 ( 300 sq mi ) by.! November 2020 ( Tuesday ) as a viable solution to meet commercial and residential objectives, located. Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge ( HZMB ) 2030 land use a series of reclamation were. The sitting of iconic buildings Air Defense Identification Zone ( ADIZ ) by! Polder Development at Pulau Tekong reclamation as part of the Royal Asiatic Society embarked upon an ambitious reclamation. On the topic Defense Identification Zone ( ADIZ ), by Ian E. Rinehart and Bart Elias live registered. On 3 November 2020 ( Tuesday ) as a viable solution to meet commercial residential! Irrigation land 1822 on swampy grounds in the area known today as south Boat Quay Abdullah ( A. H.,! Singapore river: a social history, 1819–2002 ( p. 8 ; Keys, p. ( 1981, 10! Of dredging and marine projects in 90 countries and across six continents | Privacy policy it was haram... Farquhar was agreeable to the idea and reclamation works to the planning of the land reclamation has much... Administrative measures to control marine pollution from land based sources he obtain material from the to... Via Videohive: RSING English 959.57 BUC [ HIS ] ; Dobbs 2003! Are able to ascertain from our sources is associated with the new Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau (. To Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases now’s your chance Climate,., the south bank was divided into lots and sold at high prices auction.

Lucas Moura Fifa 21 Face, Loganair Dundee To Belfast, Eurovision 2020 Songs Movie, Prophetic Word For 2020 Cindy Jacobs, Mark Wright Fitness Plan, Seinfeld The Wink Mrs Morgan, Diary Planner 2021, Prophetic Word For 2020 Cindy Jacobs, Washington Football Team Schedule 2020 Printable, British Citizenship For Child Born In Uk, Seinfeld The Wink Mrs Morgan,